Is accounting a good career choice 2013


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The good news is that with the growth of technology that makes it easy to work from anywhere, as well as more companies. I searched online, found out a lot of information about career after audit in big 4. The audit, in general, is the review, accounting, critique, etc. Audit measures current practice against a defined desired standard. April 10 Written By: EduPristine. Auditor independence is commonly referred to as the cornerstone of the auditing profession since it is the foundation of the public's trust in the accounting profession.

A career in accounting and finance can be a lucrative one with great growth potential. Please click on the link below to start an application for employment. So what are these five top accounting careers? A home energy audit, also known as a home energy assessment, can help you understand the whole picture of your home's energy use. Are you ready to apply your knowledge and background to exciting new challenges? From learning to leadership, this is your chance to take your career to the next level. Our job search engine is built with powerful technology that aims to match the right job opportunities with the right people.

It excludes any involvement with such transactions during their occurrence. Digitally minded managed care organization taps Protiviti to lead RPA implementation in its claims audit department Managed care organization partners with Protiviti to implement robotic process automation innovations, boost operational efficiency and further growth.

In all our years of providing clients workers compensation coverage, we can think of nothing that is more frustrating to a client than being required to pay additional premiums after a policy year has expired. These are not new to anyone and should be considered a baseline set of characteristics that is expected of all auditors.

I am currently exploring a transition out of Internal Audit, where I have been for over a decade focused on operational, financial and compliance audits. You specify the types of expenses that require auditing by setting the processing options for Auditor's Workbench P09E Higher ed leaders OK plan to improve NDSCS after negative audit surrounding career academy audit that found problems in promoting a career workforce that came after tied votes failed to. Information for Contractors. But for most job seekers, I recommend sending a thank you email.

Internal Audit — Build on your external.

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Job Safety Observation Form Audit. Updated often, the Accounting. With member countries, staff from more than countries, and offices in over locations, the World Bank Group is a unique global partnership: five institutions working for sustainable solutions that reduce poverty and build shared prosperity in developing countries. Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. We use cookies to make our site simpler to use. The Federal Reserve, the central bank of the United States, provides the nation with a safe, flexible, and stable monetary and financial system. The IRS tries to audit tax returns as soon as possible after they are filed.

The aim of this methodology is to provide project managers in education with an effective tool for the audit procedure focused on the material aspect of project management. Working at FAA offers a unique opportunity to experience a career where your impact not only reaches throughout the aviation industry, but around the world. You'll not only learn the technical skills firms require, you'll get a head start on developing the professional skills—communication, teamwork and client-facing skills—that will set you apart.

You will then receive e-mails once job openings that match your criteria are posted. It requires being curious — knowing what you want to do and where you want to go. As soon as possible for the IRS is typically around 12 months to 18 months after the tax return is filed, sometimes sooner. In the days following the collapse of Lehman Brothers and Bear Stearns, the one thing financial examiners seemed to agree on was that the cause was, at least in part, a failure to implement or respond to proper internal auditing practices.

Jobs updated daily. The audit report is the end result of an audit and can be used by the recipient person or organization as a tool for financial reporting, investing, altering operations, enforcing accountability, or making decisions. Accounting Job Titles Below is a list of some of the most common accounting job titles, as well as a description of each. Liberal government steps up inspections of foreign worker job sites after audit criticism. Here is an answer example: "I remain focused on the job by double checking my work on a consistent basis, especially if I am becoming a bit tired when working overtime.

It is performed by safety officers to evaluate efficiency, reliability, and effectivity of health and safety systems of the organization. Defense Department accounting discrepancies that could take years. The audit committee may consider contracting outside assistance to review the need for an internal audit function if the committee is con-cerned that management may not have the objectivity or qualifications to conduct the.

A career in audit and assurance. My Deloitte internship experience was truly amazing. They try to factor in a lengthy audit process and a month appeal process. Careers After IT Auditing Recently, a reader named Porak asked me what careers IT auditors can move to when they leave auditing see the original question here. Within public accounting, you can work for any sized firm, ranging from a large, international CPA firm to a small local accounting practice.

Tax has a clear career progression and your salary should rise steadily. What to expect after you're selected for an audit In most cases, you will receive a letter asking for information. On Friday May 9th we had a lunch out for all staff and employees for a job well done in December Quality Audit.

DOL released this document only after the court ruled that this and many other documents were not subject to any FOIA exemptions. In addition to the web-based portal for the collection of pay and hours worked data for calendar years and which opened on July 15, , a data file upload function and validation process is now OPEN, as an alternative data collection method for employers who prefer to utilize data file upload.

Corporate vs. public accounting

From audit and taxation to investment banking, the realm of options for CAs has only widened over the years. The review and the audit team did an excellent job of explaining the process and were very helpful throughout the entire review. Equality and employment. The City hires the best person for a job regardless of your race, gender, religion, sexuality, or physical ability.

Explore Audit Assistant Openings in your desired locations Now!. A home for you. It is a three-part exam that remains the standard by which individuals demonstrate their comprehensive competence and professionalism in the internal auditing field. Private and publicly traded companies: You can also find jobs working for private and publicly traded companies, usually in the capacity of an internal auditor CPA license not mandatory.

Back to Top. No more, no less.

The best job you never thought of

Search millions of jobs and get the inside scoop on companies with employee reviews, personalized salary tools, and more. I made it my goal to complete both an internship in audit and an internship in tax. Accountancy qualifications can prove useful across a wide range of careers, particularly in management and finance.

I must also ensure that I keep abreast of regulatory developments; after all, this moulds the way we do business. Available careers. Useful information to assist contractors understand DCAA audit processes. For example, "Are you at the point of your public career where you are tired of the travel, lack of continuity of a team and don't see how another busy season is going to add new skills or depth to your career?

Before the implementation of automated front office systems, The most convenient time to perform the audit was during the late evening and early morning hours, This helps the front office personal to work with minimal interruption and also most of the hotel outlets and. Know about what to wear, how to prepare and what to say in a job interview. You may receive one or more of the following:. For companies that have not been audited for sales tax previously, there is often a misconception about the role the auditor plays. When you purchase a workers' compensation insurance policy, your insurer will estimate your exposure to workplace injuries.

Search Canadian jobs, explore careers and labour market trends, subscribe to email alerts, sign up for Job Match, and find tools and resources for employers. An audit partner will be defined as a partner who is a member of the audit engagement team who has responsibility for decision-making on significant auditing, accounting and reporting matters that affect the financial statements or who maintains regular contact with management and the audit committee.

And impact everything around you. Neil Machray, Chief Internal Auditor at Aegon, shares his advice for recently qualified CAs with an interest in audit, and discusses how he started out in his career. During the audit, the employee may be also asked to explain and demonstrate any of the new duties described in the position description.

For staff jobs posted after July 1, visit Workday Penn. The ISB expanded its focus beyond the audit partner, and examined issues associated with the hiring of members of the audit team by the client. How to Prepare for a Workers Compensation Audit. An audit will also look at personnel and may interview staff to confirm that their duties match their job description, and that they have the required training to safely access financial information.

While a forensic audit may sound like something exciting you hear about on crime dramas like Law and Order or CSI, the truth is a little more mundane. Find your perfect Audit job with CareersinAudit. After a rotational program of months in Internal Audit, you will have the opportunity to transition into another area of the company - finance, accounting, operations, etc. The audit process is designed as a service to you that guarantees you only pay the premium that.

What to do afterwards. At Monster, we're dedicated to making the job search process simple—and stress free. But after that, I would really like to leave and do something completely different. It is written in the standard format. After the audit has been completed we will send you an invoice for the audit.

In most cases the Internal Audit team has a flat structure and there is not a long term Internal Audit career path in place - it is simply a way of learning the business before moving into other areas of finance. I'm also drunk. Apply to Audit Assistant Jobs on Naukri. The full report is available below. Learn more. Goals and objectives. There exists today a wide range of job opportunities in the field of accounting. What is it really like to work for the NHS?. A job analysis conducted in conformance with the Uniform Guidelines and. The third objective was to find out how career decision-making self-efficacy and career choice anxiety change according to self-esteem and future time perspective.

We conducted a study using the daily diary method in which participants were asked to rate their affect or attitudes for 21 consecutive days.


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In total, university students participated in this study. The main results were as follows. First, positive affect was associated positively with career decision-making self-efficacy and negatively with career choice anxiety. Second, social support had a synergy effect with positive affect to influence career choice anxiety. Third, self-esteem was related positively to career decision-making self-efficacy and negatively to career choice anxiety. We discuss theoretical and practical implications.

Most young adults are well aware of the significance of career decision-making and are very concerned about their future careers. While attempting to make a good career decision, each individual must consider his or her own preferences, interests, capabilities, and skills Judge et al. In addition, external factors—career prospects, variations in the job market, etc. Therefore, college graduates have difficulty in getting the jobs they want Joo, All these hardships can result in confusion and difficulties in career decision-making Levin and Gati, According to SCCT, self-efficacy expectancy and outcome expectations are crucial factors that directly or indirectly affect career-related outcome expectations, goals, behaviors, and performance Thompson et al.

Based on SCCT, this study focused on self-efficacy related to career decision-making, namely career decision-making self-efficacy. In addition, anxiety is a typical indicator of negative outcome expectation experienced when people perform in a given domain; therefore, we also focused on anxiety related to career decision-making—namely, career choice anxiety.

Career choice anxiety can be viewed as a consequence of outcome expectations, as it is in some studies e. However, the theory of the relationship between emotion and cognition Phelps, ; Pessoa, indicates that, while emotion such as anxiety is the consequence of cognition such as outcome expectations, emotions also affect expectations. Because it is difficult to separate emotion from cognition, in the current study, we considered as an outcome expectation career choice anxiety, which is an emotional indicator of negative outcome expectation for career decision-making.

Examining career decision-making self-efficacy and career choice anxiety can provide more insight into the career decision-making process. People with high self-efficacy for career decision-making can develop career plans effectively, but those with a high level of career choice anxiety may experience difficulties in the career decision-making process Germeijs et al.

In other words, those with high career decision-making efficacy can make successful career decisions and perform successfully in their careers whereas those with high career choice anxiety may experience negative outcomes in career decision-making and career performance as they are overwhelmed by the career decision-making process. A study on career discontinuity and reemployment found that the most prominent difficulty faced by women with career disconnection was the loss of self-efficacy regarding making new career decisions Gwal, Based on this finding, it is necessary to identify individual factors that affect the career decision-making process, such as career choice anxiety e.

Among the processes involved in the SCCT model, the present study focused on the relationship between self-efficacy expectancy and outcome expectation with proximal variables individual and contextual influences. More specifically, we investigated career decision-making self-efficacy as self-efficacy expectancy, career decision choice anxiety as outcome expectation, self-esteem and future time perspective as inter-individual variability, positive affect experience as intra-individual variability, and social support as a contextual influence.

Previous studies e. However, some career development researchers e. In particular, Germeijs et al. However, to our knowledge, no study has been conducted to investigate the fluctuations in career decision attitudes such as career decision-making self-efficacy and career choice anxiety on a daily basis. Recently, career adaptability or job performance research using a daily diary method has shown that job and career satisfaction Zacher, , transformational leadership, job engagement, self-efficacy, and optimism Tims et al.

Jung et al. It is also well known that anxiety can vary by state Spielberger, ; Marteau and Bekker, Unlike trait anxiety, state anxiety may fluctuate depending on the situation and is a function of the stressors Barnes et al. Weinstein et al. In line with previous studies Weinstein et al.

Based on this, we assumed that career decision-making self-efficacy and career choice anxiety would change daily. Thus, the first purpose of this study was to determine whether the intra-individual variability in positive affect is related to the intra-individual variability in career decision-making self-efficacy and career choice anxiety. The second objective was to examine whether social support regulates affect and these outcome variables.

The third objective was to find out how career decision-making self-efficacy and career choice anxiety change according to self-concept—general self-efficacy and self-esteem—widely known as relatively stable individual differences. In other words, we investigated whether attitude toward career decision differs within 21 days according to the individual differences in general self-efficacy and self-esteem. SCCT Lent et al. SCCT supposes that links among social cognitive variables, person input, goal-related behaviors, and contextual factors contribute to career-related outcomes Lent et al.

Since SCCT was introduced, it has become a popular base for career research and intervention in the past two decades Sheu and Bordon, It emphasizes the role of self-efficacy expectations and outcome expectations in the formation of career choice goals and career interests as well as career-related performance outcomes Dickinson et al. Self-efficacy refers to beliefs that people have about their abilities to plan and execute performance successfully Bandura, , which subsequently lead to the formation of career-related interests, choice goals, and performance.

Since self-efficacy is domain-specific, people may have high self-efficacy in some domains e. Based on SCCT, career or vocational psychologists have been encouraged to explore how contextual and individual variables, such as career decision-making self-efficacy, affect the career development process of youth Hackett and Byars, Many studies generally supported the application of the SCCT framework to career-decision research in that self-efficacy has influenced career choice, career indecisiveness, and career choice satisfaction, among others Lent et al.

Further, SCCT has been found to be useful for accounting for the career development experiences in diverse populations e. Taylor and Betz defined career decision-making self-efficacy as a confidence or belief that one can successfully complete challenges necessary for career decision-making. Since then, researchers of the career decision-making process e. In particular, career decision-making intervention studies have focused on improving career decision-making self-efficacy e. Meanwhile, in the career decision-making process, the most prominent hindrance for career development is career choice anxiety.

Career choice anxiety has been defined as emotional distress associated with career decision-making Germeijs et al. It refers to difficulty in dealing with career-related information and making actions Corkin et al. Individuals who have difficulty in career decision-making may experience career choice anxiety Miller and Rottinghaus, and low performance in career decision-making tasks Germeijs et al. Career decision-making self-efficacy and career choice anxiety are not polarized on one dimension; instead, they are two independent concepts.

Therefore, studies on the career decision-making process need to examine these two variables separately.

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Inspired by SCCT, many empirical studies have investigated the influence of individual difference variables e. Lent et al. One important intra-individual difference variable that may influence career decision-making self-efficacy and career choice anxiety is positive affect. According to the Broaden and Build Theory Fredrickson and Joiner, , experiencing positive affect e. Positive rather than negative affect is a strong predictor of health or functional abilities Serafini et al. Recently, positive affect has also been recognized as an individual variable that influences career-related outcomes Haase et al.

In Haase et al. In addition, Young et al. They explained that affect influences career construction by motivating and restraining career-related behaviors and by promoting the development of career-related stories. More specifically, positive affect can influence career decision-making self-efficacy. Positive affect can enhance self-efficacy since it is connected to success and the thought of overall well-being Bandura, According to a previous study Hammond et al. Larson and Borgen found that positive affect was related to job confidence.

Overall, these results indicate that positive affect influences career-related self-efficacy. In previous studies, positive affect was not measured on a daily basis. However, emotions are not stable and may vary often Kidd, ; Hartung, Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the influence of positive affect experienced in daily life on the daily degree of career decision-making self-efficacy. The present study predicted that career decision-making self-efficacy would increase daily with an increase in the experience of positive affect.

Meanwhile, positive affect can lower career choice anxiety by arousing memories or beliefs related to success Bandura, In the study by Albion and Fogarty , while emotionally stable people were found to experience less difficulty in the career decision-making process, those who had low positive affect and lacked the skills to utilize affect tended to avoid career decision-making due to the decline in self-efficacy and, consequently, tended to experience greater difficulties in the career decision-making process. In other words, individuals were likely to be diffident and to experience anxiety regarding the career they had to choose when positive affect decreased.

Considering all these factors together, the present study expected career choice anxiety to decrease daily with an increase in the experience of positive affect. Thus, the following hypotheses were established:. Hypothesis 1: Positive affect will be positively associated with career decision-making self-efficacy.

Hypothesis 2: Positive affect will be negatively associated with career choice anxiety. Based on SCCT and the developmental and relational perspective, the contextual aspect—social context—must be considered to understand the optimal individual functioning within the context of career development Lent and Brown, Even though many theories on career decision-making and career development traditionally focus on individuals, the awareness of the importance of social and relational contexts has been increasing over time Hirschi and Freund, For instance, Blustein emphasized the relational context of career and asserted that the career decision-making exploration and its process can be promoted or restrained according to relationship experiences.

In other words, social support can promote the career decision-making process by providing informational and emotional support toward career management through its application as a relational resource. Therefore, this study focused on the role of the relational context, particularly social support, to examine if it moderated the relationship between positive affect and career decision-making processes such as career decision-making self-efficacy and career choice anxiety. Social support refers to the information, emotional comfort, material assistance, and self-trust obtained from personal relations Revenson and Gibofsky, In addition, perceived social support is defined as a perception of how resources can function as a buffer against stressful events Zimet et al.

When people receive social support from family, friends, and significant others, they feel secure and companionable in their surroundings Bozo et al. Thus, those who perceive their social relations as supportive are very likely to experience good results in life Cohen and Wills, On the other hand, the perception of low social support not only lowers emotional well-being but also brings about mental health problems Caserta et al. Although research on the SCCT model has emphasized the impact of contextual barriers in the career development, Lent et al. In a SCCT framework, social support is defined as contextual affordance that helps career choice and development Gushue and Whitson, Accordingly, we examined perceived social support as having the potential to influence career decision self-efficacy and career choice anxiety in this study.

Schultheiss et al. In addition, Patel et al. Cohen and Wills argued that those who perceive their social relations to be supportive experience good results in life. In qualitative studies Kracke, ; Dietrich and Kracke, , parental support and a children-centered parenting style were found to have a positive relationship with the career exploration of teenagers.

Social support had similar effects on adolescents Hirschi et al. Theoretically, social support may impact self-efficacy and judgment. In other words, individuals with high social support tend to be more confident in their lives and exhibit good judgment regarding what they should do. Gushue and Whitson empirically proved that both parental and teacher support were positively associated with career decision confidence in a population of high school students.

Further, positive feedback from the parents and teachers boosted their self-confidence for career decision-making. Taken together, these seem to indicate that individuals with high social support are more confident in career decision-making compared with those with low social support. In this study, therefore, we expected that the interaction between positive affect and social support would impact career decision-making confidence.

Given that social support helps career decision-making and development, high social support would strengthen the influence of positive affect on career decision-making self-efficacy.

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Therefore, we hypothesized as follows:. Hypothesis 3: Social support will moderate the relationship between positive affect and career decision-making self-efficacy such that the relationship would be stronger in individuals with high social support than in those with low social support. Social support has been considered as a moderating variable in a variety of studies, and the buffer effect of social support has been extensively identified in various ages and circumstances.

It had a moderating effect on adverse psychological outcomes such as stress, depression, and anxious emotions in a study that targeted German steel industry workers Frese, and buffered the negative effect of activities of Daily Living performance on depression in the elderly Hashimoto et al. In the present study, we were also interested in the effect of social support as a moderating variable. In Hypothesis 2, relative to individuals with low positive affect, we expected those with high positive affect to experience less anxiety regarding their career decisions by inducing memories and beliefs related to success Bandura, With social support from significant people, the effect of positive affect on anxiety reduction would be augmented.

This is because social support may have a buffering effect on anxiety for individuals who are under stress about making a career decision. Given that social support helps the regulation of anxiety, it would augment the influence of positive affect on career choice anxiety. In other words, high social support and positive affect may induce memories related to success, leading to the recognition of self-worth and sense of stability, which, in turn, would lead to less career choice anxiety.

Thus, we hypothesized as follows:. Hypothesis 4: Social support will moderate the relationship between positive affect and career choice anxiety such that the relationship would be stronger in individuals with high social support than in those with low social support. Future time perspective has been empirically investigated related to career decision processes such as career decision-making self-efficacy Walker and Tracey, ; Jung et al. However, no study has been conducted to examine its impact on daily career decision-making self-efficacy and daily career choice anxiety.

The current study aimed to investigate those relationships within the SCCT framework. The present study expected that future time perspective would be related to career decision-making self-efficacy. When people have high future time perspective, they tend to perceive their future to be salient. This leads people to set goals and generate strategies for attaining those goals Strauss et al. Furthermore, individuals with future time perspective showed active establishment of their goals and expectations, efficient regulation of their behaviors, and persistent evaluation of their performance Husman and Shell, As a corollary, people would feel strong confidence in their career decision-making.

Prior studies empirically examined whether future time perspective was related to career decision-making self-efficacy Walker and Tracey, ; Jung et al. The current study examined the impact of future time perspective on daily degree of career decision-making self-efficacy.

More specifically, individuals with high future time perspective can increase confidence and undermine the anxiety for their career choice by assisting individuals to focus on their goals in the future Jung et al. Prior studies uncovered that future time perspective was negatively associated with career choice anxiety Walker and Tracey, ; Taber, ; Jung et al. Aligned with the previous studies, we expected that future time perspective would reduce career choice anxiety measured daily.

Thus, we expect as follows:. Hypothesis 5: Future time perspective will be positively associated with daily career decision-making self-efficacy. Hypothesis 6: Future time perspective will be negatively associated with daily career choice anxiety. Self-esteem, the evaluative component of self-knowledge, is defined as how much people think of themselves as worthy Baumeister et al. By definition, it is related to the degree of liking or disliking oneself Lent and Fouad, Self-esteem and self-efficacy are highly correlated, but they are two distinct concepts Chen et al.

Self-esteem is an important variable that affects various aspects of life, including occupation and job performance. Core self-assessments including self-esteem were meaningful variables that explained career decision-making self-efficacy Betz et al. In other words, those with a high perception of self-esteem had a high tendency to aim for actions and proficiency, resulting in improved career decision-making self-efficacy. In the current study, we investigated the relationship between global self-esteem and daily career decision-making self-efficacy.

Based on the previous studies, the present study anticipated that people with high self-esteem would have higher daily career decision-making self-efficacy than those with low self-esteem. Self-esteem is generally related to emotional reactions, especially anxiety or avoidance affective processes Baumeister et al. According to the dimensional theory of affect, individuals with high self-esteem may feel less anxiety Brown and Marshall, Mineka et al.

This indicates that people with low self-esteem are likely to experience greater anxiety with regard to career decision-making in daily life. Considering these, the following hypotheses were proposed in the present study:. Hypothesis 7: Self-esteem will be positively associated with career decision-making self-efficacy. The sample size for this study was determined based on Kuppens et al.

Of the students who responded to the first questionnaire, 23 refused to participate in the day daily questionnaire. Therefore, the final sample comprised participants. Of these, 40 participants were male The participants included 35 first-year students Students were able to receive course credits by participating in the baseline survey and the day daily survey.

One of the researchers of this study explained the purpose and research procedures to the participants in an introductory session. The participants were instructed to report their daily affect, career decision-making self-efficacy, and career choice anxiety through their smartphones or personal computers for 21 consecutive days. The students who agreed to do it took part in the study. Those who did not register their responses were reminded to do so through an additional text message at 10 PM.

enter site Ratings were recorded on the same day, and, if participants missed 1 day, they were asked to rate the same thing the next day. After the introductory session, an initial survey was conducted. In the baseline survey, the participants were asked to respond about the following variables: self-esteem, social support, gender, and age.

Their cell phone numbers were collected to send them text messages for the daily survey. The survey began in mid-March and finished in mid-April. Daily rating began 1 week after the introductory session, and the contents of the text messages were the same as those used in the study by Park The daily survey will take place for 21 consecutive days, and you will receive a text message at 9 PM.

Log in to the website linked to the text message, and rate the items according to the instructions. Rate your affect, career decision-making self-efficacy, and career choice anxiety at the moment. All participants gave written informed consent in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. The experiences of positive affect throughout a day were measured using nine items from the four quadrants of the core affect scale Kuppens et al. These items were translated into Korean and had been used in the study by Park The nine affective adjectives are happy, alert, proud, enthusiastic, excited, calm, satisfied, peaceful, content, and relaxed.

The score for each day was computed by adding the ratings for all nine affects, and higher scores meant that more positive affect was experienced throughout the day. We used a item questionnaire that is a validated short-form of the career decision self-efficacy scale developed by Betz et al. The career decision self-efficacy scale comprises five items on four subordinate factors: accurate self-appraisal, gathering occupational information, goal selection, and making plans. The present study used five items—one item for each subordinate field—for daily measurement over the day period.

Lee used this scale for her study after translating into Korean. In the study by Betz et al. We measured future time perspective using a item scale designed by Carstensen and Lang , which was validated in previous studies Cate and John, ; Zacher and Frese, Participants rated the extent to which they agreed with each of the 10 items on a scale ranging from 1 not at all to 7 to a very great extent.

To measure self-esteem, the scale developed by Rosenberg and translated and validated by Lee and Won was used. This scale, which is one of the most widely used tools worldwide, comprises 10 items related to positive and negative assessments of oneself—e. The MSPSS comprises 12 items measuring the social support perceived from three sources: family, friends, and significant others. This study collected data using a multilevel structure, including variables at both the within-person Level 1 and between-person levels Level 2. Therefore, hierarchical linear modeling HLM; Raudenbush et al.

In this study, the between-person variables i. Future time perspective at the between-person level as a control variable was included because previous studies showed that it is related to career decision-making self-efficacy and career choice anxiety e. This study handled missing data with listwise deletion. The means, standard deviations, and the between-person and within-person correlations among study variables. The intraclass correlation coefficient was computed to determine if there was significant between-person variance to confirm if HLM is an appropriate method to analyze the data Hofmann et al.

The HLM analysis was deemed appropriate because the results showed that the between-person variance for both outcome variables was significant. To examine hypotheses 1 and 2, we regressed positive affect on career decision-making self-efficacy and career choice anxiety. Accordingly, the estimates ensured strict within-person association Ilies et al. Thus, Hypotheses 1 and 2 were supported. Hierarchical linear modeling results of the effect of positive affect on decision-making self-efficacy and career choice anxiety.

Additionally, we examine the lagged effects of positive affect on career decision-making self-efficacy and career choice anxiety to probe if it slightly delayed the effects on these variables. The lagged positive affect was centered with the mean of each individual to exclude between-person variance. These results suggest that positive affect may not have a lasting effect on career decision-making self-efficacy but may do so on career choice anxiety.

We predicted that social support would moderate the relationship between positive affect and career decision-making self-efficacy such that the relationship would be stronger in individuals with high social support than in those with low social support Hypothesis 3. Therefore, the results failed to support Hypothesis 3. Hierarchical linear modeling results of the hypothesized effects on decision-making self-efficacy and career choice anxiety.

Hypothesis 4 predicted that social support would moderate the relationship between positive affect and career choice anxiety such that the relationship would be stronger in individuals with high social support than in those with low social support. We then examined if this significant effect was consistent with the hypothesized trend using a simple slope test for cross-level interaction Preacher et al. Thus, Hypothesis 4 was supported. The moderating effect of social support on the relationship between positive affect and career choice anxiety.

We predicted that self-efficacy would have a significant effect on both career decision-making self-efficacy and career choice anxiety Hypotheses 5 and 6. Future time perspective was centered with the grand-mean. Therefore, Hypotheses 5 was not supported but 6 were supported. In Hypotheses 7 and 8, we proposed that self-esteem would have a significant effect on both career decision-making self-efficacy and career choice anxiety.

Therefore, Hypothesis 7 was supported, and Hypothesis 8 was not.


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Based on SCCT, this study examined the influence of intra-individual variability i. In addition, this study investigated the moderating effects of contextual influence i. The following are the main results of this study. This means that higher positive affect experienced daily corresponded with higher career decision self-efficacy; lower positive affect experienced corresponded with higher career choice anxiety. Several previous studies have identified that the experience of positive affect at the inter-individual difference is associated with career-related self-efficacy Hammond et al.

The current study is the first to investigate the relationship between positive affect and career decision-making self-efficacy and career choice anxiety at the intra-individual level. These results are aligned with previous studies finding that positive affect anticipates the changes within individuals at the career engagement level and that highly activated positive feelings promote self-directed objective control related to career decision-making Hirschi and Freund, It seems that individuals are ready to set goals and perform a variety of actions for career management when positive affect improves career decision-making self-efficacy, lowers career choice anxiety, and promotes engagement in activities that enhance career resources.

Second, social support at time 1 moderated the relationship between positive affect and career choice anxiety in that the relationship was stronger when individuals had high rather than low social support. More specifically, social support had a synergy effect with positive affect in reducing career choice anxiety.

Higher perception of social support indicates that the individual receives assistance for career development in several forms. Therefore, a high level of social support will strengthen the influence of positive affect on reducing career choice anxiety.

is accounting a good career choice 2013 Is accounting a good career choice 2013
is accounting a good career choice 2013 Is accounting a good career choice 2013
is accounting a good career choice 2013 Is accounting a good career choice 2013
is accounting a good career choice 2013 Is accounting a good career choice 2013
is accounting a good career choice 2013 Is accounting a good career choice 2013
is accounting a good career choice 2013 Is accounting a good career choice 2013
is accounting a good career choice 2013 Is accounting a good career choice 2013
is accounting a good career choice 2013 Is accounting a good career choice 2013
Is accounting a good career choice 2013

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