Clarifying Who Did What. Highlighting Your Findings. Hedging and Criticising. Paraphrashing and Plagiarism. Sections of a Paper. Useful Phrases. The Final Check. The Art of Scientific Investigation. This means that the Results is generally the shortest section in a paper. From an English point of view the key skill is in reporting your results simply and clearly. Now all you need to know is where it could all fall off the rails. In this step, you name your strengths and weakness so you know exactly where you stand walking in. Simple as that. Now all you need to do is play to those strengths and be cognizant of the weaknesses.
Completing this second step immediately—before you go to bed on the day you get the assignment—is essential to acing this paper. Set the plan and execute, execute, execute—this is the only way to achieve the results you want. If your time is nebulous, you will be more likely to drop the ball. Keep in mind that one of the crucial ingredients of successful writing is time. You need time to think, research, and create. If you fail to acknowledge this, you will write a crumby paper every time. Resist the impulse to think of the paper as a hurdle.
Make an appointment with the writing center to get a semi-professional set of eyes, and had that paper to a friend for quick notes. Your next step is to organize your time. Most of your sessions should be no more than an hour or two, but some activities—like research—might need to be a bit longer:. If you notice, most of your writing time will be spent on the front end—creating the first draft of the paper. This is because everything after that will be revisionary.
If you stick to this schedule, you will not only complete your paper on time, you will complete it well. Every writer on the planet will tell you that the schedule is the foundation of good writing—the more time you spend in the chair, the better the writing gets. Free writing is often popular, but it can be really time consuming, and also not particularly helpful for research papers.
As well, some profs advise talking it out with a friend, which can be distracting. The best method for this is mapping. Mapping is a technique that allows you to freely record your ideas in a logical manner. Mapping will give you strong guiding questions as well as demonstrate how your ideas are connected, which is super useful for writing a long research paper.
Mapping looks something like this:. Note that the ideas get more specific the further away they are from the center topic. Circle the ones that are most specific and uses them for your paper.
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So, apply your field of study, your interests, or something topical to the subject. Here are some ideas based upon that…. Out of the above, which sounds like it has the most juice? Probably number one. Even without doing any Googling, it seems evident that there will be research in this area that you can draw from. As well, you can rely on non-technical, non-academic observation to give you better ideas—you can use your experience to shape your subject matter. So go with number 1.
Take a look at these specific ideas that you can use in your research phase:. And look, you can scroll to the bottom of the page to get a jump on specific articles to use in your research. As well, 51 mentions your keyword! With our tutorial on writing a thesis statement, you will see thesis examples, ways to craft a thesis sentence, and how to organize your paper around a thesis statement.
Writing a Research Paper
Second, you will need specific examples to write about. Third, you will need to organize those three items effectively. And, fourth, you will need to make an outline. The first step to creating a successful thesis statement is generating a concise overview of the topic at hand. In this case, technology and the ESL classroom is the topic upon which the paper is based. So the first portion of your thesis should be a generalized statement that describes the imperatives which make your paper relevant.
Begin by making a list of why you think your paper topic is relevant. In this case, we could say that…. Sounds pretty good, eh? Teachers who do not embrace technology in their classes risk losing students to academic boredom, not to mention that they will be perceived by their students as tedious and irrelevant. Even better! With adding then subtracting, expanding then consolidating, moving from the general to the specific, you can craft an overview to be used in the thesis.
Also, note the use of old tricks, like opposing vocabulary extracurricular v. So, check the rubric—did we hit any goals? See Development, Language and vocabulary, and Sentence structure! The problem presented was that instructors take away learning tools from students and replace them with less interesting forms of learning and stop social interaction with the classroom. As well, instructors give little attention to technology-based learning tools as an avenue for education. ESL instructors should make using technology a priority of education, both inside and outside the classroom.
ESL instructors should try to increase digital interactions between students outside of class, use digital technology inside of class, and make digital avenues of education a learning priority. Pretty good, but we can make it sound even more academic. Again, use the Word synonym function, and try to bring out the parallel structure even more:. All we need now is to connect the two sentences together with some kind of sentence, transitional phrase, or conjunction.
In this case as with almost everything in writing, actually keep it simple:. Wait a sec! So use it with abandon, so long as you complete the sentence! Now, check the rubric again! Check and check and check! And, to top it all off, you now have three areas of research to focus on! Often students writing long, research-based papers struggle with smoothly connecting the related ideas within the paper.
There are three simple steps. However, you cannot be sure at which section your readers will begin reading, so they need access to the answers to these questions in most or all the sections. Look at other papers in your chosen journal to see how the authors deal with such questions. Clearly, the emphasis you put on answering the questions will vary from section to section, and is likely to be greatest in the Abstract and Discussion, but consider covering it in the other sections too. When you revise your paper if you think you have done too much highlighting, then you can always remove a few sentences.
But while drafting your paper if you con- stantly try to highlight your contribution, this will give you extra focus. For more on underlining your contribution see Chapter 8. What kind of culture do you come from? Is there a power distance between you and your professors? Do your professors expect you to listen and understand by yourself what they are saying? Do they write in a way that requires effort on your part to decipher what they are saying?
If so, you are in the majority on a worldwide scale. You are part of a receiver-oriented culture. Anglo cultures too were once like this. But in the last 50 years or so, the roles have been reversed. It is the responsibility of the speaker or writer to ensure that their audience understand what they are saying. It is possible to write a paper in completely accurate English, but still have a paper rejected for poor writing skills — which is what happens even to native English- speaking researchers.
On the other hand, a paper that is constructed well, and is easy to read, may be accepted perhaps with some requests for minor revisions even if the English is not totally accurate. All referees will appreciate it if you use simple language. There are no journals, as far as I know, that are easier to write for in terms of level of English required. By doing so you will increase the chances of your paper being accepted. The clearer the literature is, the more they will understand. This means that when you begin the writing process, you need to bear in mind that your reader may not be as expert as you are.
This does not mean you have to write in a more complicated way, but just that you include enough details to get experts interested. You can use the questions in the forms as guidelines for your writing. It will help you considerably if you think about all these questions while you are writing your paper. A study carried out by James Evans, a sociologist at the University of Chicago, revealed that despite the fact more papers are available online than ever before due to the digitization of older articles , it tends to be the most recent papers that are cited … again and again.
Search engines determine what we are likely to read.
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This narrows the scope of what we read and exaggerates in a self-perpetuating manner the importance of the articles that are ranked higher in the search. It is gener- ally best to start with a very rough draft of the Abstract, and then whichever section is clearest in your head generally the Materials and Methods Consider having separate documents for each section. This enables you to work on several sections at the same time Make sure your unique contribution to your community is very clear in every section, not just in the Abstract Write in a way that even a non-expert can understand Referees work for free and often outside working hours — never submit a care- lessly written manuscript Access referees report forms to understand the ways that referees will evaluate your work Write directly in English, and use every opportunity for improving your writing skills Use online resources Learn how search engines index your paper For example, many languages say men and women, but mother and father.
However in China, they say father and mother. This explains why around half the world's languages say black and white, while the other half say white and black. For English speakers it's eas- ier to make the sound of b rather than w, for the same reasons a Spanish speak- ing person says 'bianco e negro' rather than 'negro e bianco'. It is advisable that a foreign language should be learned at a young age. S3 or S4? You are doing this course in your own time but at the expense of your department in order to learn English.
In order to learn English you are doing this course. The course takes place in your own time but at the expense of your department. English, although currently the international language of business, may one day be replaced by Spanish or Chinese. Although English is currently the international language of business, it may one day be replaced by Spanish or Chinese. English may one day be replaced by Spanish or Chinese, even though it is currently the international language of business. English is currently the international language of business.
However, it may one day be replaced by Spanish or Chinese. This will also help the reader understand more. Native English-speaking readers have a clear expectation regarding the order in which information should be given to them. English has a strict order in which words can appear in a sentence. Below is an example of this order. The researchers sent their manuscript to the journal.
This order is rarely altered. Last week the researchers sent their manuscript to the journal for the second time. The position of last week and for the second time is wrong, and the indirect object comes before the direct object. In the NO! In the last example, the verb in the NO!
Below are some more examples: no! Overall the match between the aggressiveness of season-based inoculations and the capacity of the fungus to be active in vitro as a function of the temperature, appears strict. Several authors have evaluated the possibility of using a cleaning procedure to minimize the levels of background compounds, both those released from the bag material and those from the previous sample collection.
Overall there seems to be a close match between the aggressiveness of season- based inoculations and the capacity of the fungus to be active in vitro as a function of the temperature. However, we want to stress that the way the components are assembled is very innovative. Although our components are of a traditional design, the way they are assembled is very innovative.
Working in this domain entails modifying the algorithms as we are dealing with complex numbers. Since we are dealing with complex numbers, working in this domain also entails modifying the algorithms. Therefore, the rescaled parameters seem to be appropriate for characterizing the properties, from a statistical point of view. Therefore, from a statistical point of view, the rescaled parameters seem to be appropriate for characterizing the properties. The NO! The author then introduces new information that completely contrasts with the preceding information. On the other hand in the YES examples, the author immedi- ately tells readers the point of view he wants them to assume.
The key rule is: Say what something is before you begin to describe it. They have used an introductory subsidiary clause to stress the importance or evidence of the subject before telling the reader what the subject is. Were used several different methods in the experiments. Several different methods were used in the experiments. With these values are associated a series of measurements. Of particular interest was the sugar transporter, because… The sugar transporter was of particular interest, because… Important parameters are conciseness and non-ambiguity.
Conciseness and non-ambiguity are important parameters. In the following sentences, the parts highlighted in italics occupy the key left-hand posi- tion.
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They delay the subject, with the risk that readers may not even see the subject. It is interesting to note that x is equal to y. As a consequence of the preceding observations, x is equal to y. Consequently, x is equal to y. Instead, use modal verbs might, need, should etc.
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Anything that comes between the subject and the verb will be read with less atten- tion, and readers will consider it of less importance see next subsection. There is generally a gradual decline in germinability and of the resultant seedling, followed by a higher sensitivity to stress upon germination, and possibly a loss of the ability to germinate [5, 8, 19]. Such companies generally employ people with a high rate of… S3 and S4 use active verbs. But sometimes you may need to use the passive and you may have several subjects for the same verb. People with a high rate of intelligence are generally employed by such companies.
They must also have other skills including: an unusual ability to… ok improved It is probable that this is due to poor performance. It is possible to do this with the new system. This can be done with the new system. It is mandatory to use the new version.
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The new version must be used. Readers may consider this parenthetical information to be of less importance. This does not mean that you cannot have a series of short clauses within one sen- tence. In the example below, readers do not have to change their perspective while moving from one clause to the next.
In Old English, the language spoken in English over years ago, a word could be placed almost anywhere in a sentence, and often with no change in meaning. Of course, the rule not to insert parenthetical information, like every rule, should not be regarded as sacrosanct - i. After the calculation has been made, the result can be used to determine Y. This sampling method, when it is possible, is useful because it allows….
In S1 below, the direct object is very long and consists of a series of items, so the reader has to wait a long time before discovering what all these items are associated with. S3 and S4 are other alternatives to dealing with this problem. We can separate P and Q with this tool. We can associate with these values a high cost. We can associate a high cost with these values. This is not the usual word order in English. For example: S1.
Beeswax is a very important substance because… In fact, it is… In S1 it is clear that it refers to beeswax. But in S2, below, it refers to a noun that comes after i. This occurs when there is a dependent voltage in the original network. These thoughts should move forward, never backtracking, never forcing the reader to reconsider or reinterpret what they have just read in the light of what they are reading now.
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