Rather, there were many long-term and short-term factors, none of which in isolation could have sparked the mass bloodshed, but which combined to create the perfect storm. These incredibly interconnected factors included the racial, political, economic, and religious situations, as well as the history of the region, in particular the Ottoman Empire, at the turn of the 20th century. The Ottoman Empire was the most recent of a long line of invaders to control the Armenian kingdom in ; the once powerful kingdom had previously succumbed to Greeks, Romans, Persians, Arabs, Seljuks, Mongols, Tartars, all before falling into Ottoman hands Hartunian XIV.
No longer can the Armenian and the Turk live together. Whenever you find the opportunity, you will annihilate us; and whenever we find the opportunity, we will annihilate you. Now the opportunity is ours and we will do everything to harm you. The wise course for you, when the time comes, is to leave this country and never return. To begin, the first factor to be examined is the history of the Ottoman Empire, and how Armenians had been treated until the beginning of the genocide in In regards to this, there are two incredibly varying viewpoints.
Some historians argue that the Armenians were not only treated as second class citizens, but they were treated as though they were not human. This takes into account the lack of civil rights available to Armenians, as well as the economic and societal restraints placed upon them. These included, but were not limited to, being forbidden to bear arms, leaving them at the mercy of the Muslim majority, as well as the inability to seek retribution in a court of law Hartunian XIV.
According to this viewpoint, as well as the fact that the the region, both formerly and later the nation of Armenia, had spent nearly years under Turkish rule this includes both the Seljuk Turks and the Ottoman Turks , it does not seem out of the realm of possibilities that this beaten down, ethnic and religious minority would eventually be faced with heinous violence and destruction.
In fact, the abuses of were not an isolated incident, but rather a culmination of massacres, which had been taking place throughout the Ottoman reign in the region. During the year nearly 30, Armenians were killed according to the orders of sultan Abdul Hamid II. However, it is important to understand that there are some historians who paint a different picture. In fact, many argue that the treatment of Armenians under the rule of the Ottoman Turks was far from harsh.
Those who support this theory site the treatment of conquered and colonized people in the territories of the western powers, which some would argue was actually harsher than the treatment of the Armenians. For example, in some ways, the Armenians had more freedom than their counterparts in India under British rule, and certainly more freedom than the former South American colonists of Spain. In fact, the Armenian minority in Turkey was actually quite economically and culturally prosperous, in spite of the aforementioned disadvantages they faced Armenian National Institute.
In addition, there had even been a period of reform prior to the Young Turks coming into power a topic, which will be discussed in greater detail later during which the Armenian people made great strides towards equality. There was, at this time, talk of establishing a constitutional government, which would guarantee the Armenians equal rights under the law.
However, even those who adhere to this historical interpretation cannot argue that the Armenians were at any point, or on any level, considered the equal of the Turks, and that is a very dangerous thing. Dehumanization is the first step a ruling groups takes when an impending persecution is nearing, followed in quick succession by the removal of civil rights, the spread of propaganda, relocation, and eventually extermination. The sultan, a dynastic title given to the traditional ruler of the Ottoman Empire, had given up absolute power in , causing a power vacuum.
The group known as the Young Turks took advantage of the situation, and seized power. Initially, the group was intending to make wide-sweeping reforms to create equality within the Empire by creating a constitutional government, which many Armenians supported. This is not uncommon; rather, seemingly all parties who attempted to create single party states used propagandist newspapers and magazines to spread their message. One of the main goals of this group was to regain some of the honor and prestige lost during the Balkan War, and to reassert the dominance of the Ottoman Empire in the region Armenian National Institute.
One of the most effective ways to carry out this goal was by suppressing the ethnic minorities living within their borders to ensure no further uprisings, and to send a message to the newly autocratic peoples that their recently gained freedom would not last for long. These radical Muslim leaders found the perfect group to send the message in the Armenian population within Turkey, a population accustomed to maltreatment, and an economically successful ethnic and religious minority.
During the Balkan War, many Armenians in the eastern reaches of the Empire had, in fact, joined forces with the Balkan uprisers and the Russians, much to the dismay of the Turkish government Case. After the humiliating defeat at the hands of their former subjects, the Turks decided to round up the Armenians from these provinces, and relocate them into concentration camps.
Naturally, they were subject to innumerable and unimaginable abuses such as murder, rape, beatings, and food deprivation throughout the course of the journey, in what was the beginning of the massacre. As previously mentioned, the Armenian population in the Ottoman Empire at the time was quite wealthy, which is not a problem in and of itself, but became an issue because the Turkish population, and the government itself, were far from financially secure. Working as craftsmen and farmers, Armenians paid a lot of taxes to the Empire. To make matters worse, the first several years of World War I had been a complete disaster for the Ottoman Empire, and the new Young Turk government was running out of the funds needed to wage war.
In light of this, it is reasonable to assume that part of the reason for the genocide was to acquire the wealth, which had been amassed by the Armenians Armenian. The Armenian populations in Tiflis and Baku controlled the majority of the local wealth—wealth which was desperately needed both by the Islamic civilians of the area, as well as the Young Turk government. Aside from the financial struggles in the war, the fighting itself was going poorly, and the Armenians caught the blame for this as well.
To back up this claim, and to prevent any resistance to the impending assault, the Turkish government disarmed all of the Armenians in the Ottoman Empire. Another cause for the persecution of Armenians between and was the religious tension created by the fact that they were a large group of Christians living under the rule of an Islamic nation. The Ottoman and Seljuk Empires had a unique geopolitical location in that they were located on the border between the Islamic Middle East and the Christian eastern Europe.
The two empires had always viewed themselves as guardians of the Islamic faith, and believed it was their role to spread the Islamic faith throughout their territories. Banknote Museum: 6. Series , II. Institutt for informatikk University of Bergen. Archived from the original on Retrieved August University of Bergen. Archived from the original on 21 October Collins Dictionary.
Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. Bibcode : JVGR Ararat, Turkey". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. International Journal of Middle East Studies. Nationalist Turkey annexed the Surmalu district, embracing Mount Ararat, the historic symbol of the Armenian people. Oxford University Press. London: Pluto Press. Atlas of the Ethno-Political History of the Caucasus. Translated by Nora Seligman Favorov. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Ararat: In Search of the Mythical Mountain. Random House. David Encyclopaedia Judaica 2nd ed. Ararat was thought by Gesenius to be a Sanskrit word Arjawartah , signifying "holy ground," In Fairbairn, Patrick ed. Glasgow: Blackie and Son. Symbol of Armenian Immortality]". Lraber Hasarakakan Gitutyunneri in Armenian. Yerevan History Museum. Archived from the original on 7 June Armenia: A Historical Atlas. University of Chicago Press. The Biblical Repository and Classical Review : The Geography of Strabo.
Harvard University Press. Although what Strabo means by Abos seems to be the southern spurs of Mt.
Frank; et al. The Preacher's Complete Homiletical Commentary. Kuhi Nuch, i. Jewish Encyclopedia Volume II. The mountain itself is known as Ararat only among Occidental geographers. Yerevan: Sovetakan grogh. In Hovannisian, Richard ed. Transaction Publishers. New Commentary on Genesis.
Wipf and Stock Publishers. The Armenians call Little Ararat sis and Great Ararat masis , whence it seems that great, the meaning of meds , is contained in ma. Yerevan: Gitutyun. Turkey 2nd ed. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences. Bibcode : JAESc.. Rudaw Media Network. Archived from the original on 17 November Retrieved 16 November Ararat by Frank Westerman, translated by Sam Garrett". The Spectator. Archived from the original on 11 August Retrieved 22 June Republic of Turkey Ministry of culture and tourism kultur.
Springfield, Massachusetts: Merriam-Webster. Marshall Cavendish. The Mountain Encyclopedia. Lanham, Maryland: Taylor Trade. Archived from the original on 11 October Terra Anatolia. I measured the summit elevation, averaging more than samples in my GPS, it settled on meter, 5 meter lower than the often quoted figure.
This clearly shows that the meter elevation that many sources use is wrong. The summit is a snow ridge with no visible rock anywhere. Thus, the precise elevation will change with the seasons and could definitely be influenced by climate change global warming. This would in fact point in the direction of a true Ararat elevation around meter.
Bergfahrten in nordostanatolischen Grenzlande". Die Alpen in German. Kargel; et al. Global Land Ice Measurements from Space. New York: Springer-Verlag. Geological Society of America Bulletin.
Q&A: Armenian genocide dispute
Bibcode : GSAB In Coward, M. Collision Tectonics. Geological Society of London. Bibcode : JVGR.. Bibcode : Tectp. Geophysical Journal International. Bibcode : GeoJI. Simkin, and P. Kimberly Volcanoes of the world, 3rd ed. University of California Press, Berkeley, California. Translated by W. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. They call the mountain Massis [ A History of the Holy Bible. In Agadjanian, Alexander ed. Ashgate Publishing. University of Tartu. Great Ararat was ascended for the first time by Professor Parrot, October 9, Russia Beyond the Headlines.
Archived from the original on 24 June Retrieved 19 April December 24, The Armenian Weekly. Archived from the original on September 8, Cambridge University Press. Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society of London. The Geographical Journal. Armenia, travels and studies. Volume I: The Russian Provinces. London: Longmans, Green, and Co. In Aruz, Joan ed. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art. Hebrew Union College Annual. Note the plural, hare 'Ararat ; not "Mt.
Ararat," as traditionally translated and interpreted, but rather " one of the mountains of Ararat," i. Historical Genesis: From Adam to Abraham. University Press of America. A History of Armenia. Placenames of the World: Origins and Meanings. In Bromiley, Geoffrey W. Eerdmans Publishing.
Le Figaro in French. Retrieved 9 November Yerevan—heart of Armenia: meetings on the roads of time. Union of Writers of Armenia. The sacred biblical mountain prevailing over Yerevan was the very visiting card by which foreigners came to know our country. In Mills, Watson E. Mercer Dictionary of the Bible. Mercer University Press. Studien zur armenischen Altertumskunde und Litteratur by Friedrich Murad".
The American Journal of Theology. Southwestern Adventist University. The Book of Marvels and Travels. Translated by Anthony Bale. National Gallery of Armenia. The New York Times.
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Archived from the original on 7 March Retrieved 11 February I was fortunate to be given a tour of the manuscript conservation department, headed by Dr. Gayane Eliazyan.
What Were the Main Causes of the Armenian Genocide?
In a laboratory-like setting, I watched the all-female staff expertly restoring fragile and priceless pieces of the past, and was awed as much by their ease at interacting so closely with irreplaceable remnants of their heritage as their technical skills. With the benefit of a skillful driver and four-wheel drive, take a minute breath-taking excursion through the Garni Gorge, an amazingly wild stretch of scenery just 14 miles east of Yerevan. The Azat River runs through this deep ravine; in late May it was a mere stream but the water table was sufficient to nourish a profusion of wildflowers and verdant vegetation blanketing the steep canyon walls.
My guide Hakob Hakobyan explained that because the tubular-shaped volcanic formations protruding downward resemble a pipe organ, the site is referred to as a "Symphony of Stones. Climbing upward at the other end of the gorge, we reached Garni Temple, which I had been told was the only pre-Christian religious structure still in existence in Armenia. The Garni Temple was built to celebrate the Armenian god of the Sun Mihr and is surrounded by scenic Khosrov preserve.
Climbing the steep steps to the sanctum of the temple, I was enchanted to hear a haunting melody begin. I joined an appreciative crowd mesmerized by the sounds of a man playing an instrument synonymous with Armenian identity—the duduk.
Armenia photo essay | The last villagers of Bardzrashen
People sing and play instruments everywhere, so I had become accustomed to impromptu performances. I was told the most important quality of the duduk is its ability to express the nuances and mood of the Armenian language. Next, we headed for Geghard Monastery a short distance away. Locals say that the water that comes out of the solid rock in a chamber near the main entrance has healing properties. The complex has numerous churches which range from being little more than caves to elaborately-carved chambers with soaring ceilings and tombs inlaid in the floors.
Hyak explained to me that an early king had begun the practice of royalty being laid to rest beneath the footsteps of their subjects, as a statement of being of humble service to their people. Her mother looked on with pride and told me she had tried to have a child for 18 years without success and then Maria arrived. The woman explained her daughter was named for Mother Mary, who she felt interceded on her behalf.
The origin of these rituals goes back to pagan times and often the reason for their existence is lost to time. Towards the entrance of the monastery, there is a small niche embedded in a stone wall. According to folklore, if you can successfully throw a stone so that it lands in this small crevice, your dreams will come true. Oral tradition says this practice dates to pre-Christian holiday celebrations when single men and women cast a stone toward the ledge believing if it landed there, they would soon marry.
Whatever the original reasons for the custom, the message is to aim high, and make pursuing your dreams joyful! The isolated locations are often stunningly beautiful, and enhance the aura of the divine. One of the most spectacular for both its design and setting is Noravank Monastery, about two hours southeast of Yerevan, very close to the border with Iran. The drive is enthralling for its biblical-looking scenery; in late May the sweeping, majestic mountains are blanketed in swathes of technicolor alpine flowers.
It is delicate and sculptural. It is welcoming and neat, as a holy sanctuary should be. It reflects the gentle sensibilities of it's designer, the 13th century monk who is simply known today by his first name, Momik. It encapsulates the history of the Armenians, our efforts to create beauty out of chaos, and our struggle for identity and survival in an otherwise difficult land. It is both a symbol of our continuity as a people and an inspiration for our future.
After some spell-binding time travel, a rustic but delicious lunch can be had at Areni Wine Art , an al fresco restaurant at the home and guest house of David Simonyan. From pottery to woodwork, jewelry to embroidery, paintings to rugs, there is so much to see and buy! All of these items are handmade and so unique! While living in Armenia, I would visit the Vernissage at least ten times a year, never tiring of the experience.
As artisans continue to diversify their products with fresh ideas, there is always something new to be found and added to one's collection. Indeed, the term Vernissage, which is French in origin, meaning a private showing before a formal exhibit. The memorial was built in to honor the victims of the Armenian Genocide, in which the Ottoman Turks took the lives of about 1. Every year on April 24—the Armenian Genocide Remembrance Day—thousands of Armenians gather at the memorial to commemorate the victims of the genocide.
But on any given day, people of all ages can be seen paying their respects; the day I was there a young mother walked slowly down the long path from the parking lot to the monument, holding the hand of her toddler son.
To me, its violent puncture of the sky feels like the violent rupture of Armenian history in
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